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Newest Cancer Treatments

Newest cancer treatments - In the development of innovative, results from recent clinical trials to treat lung cancer showed that the combination of immunotherapy new are surprisingly effective in controlling the progression of the disease of lung cancer. The study, published on April 4 in the journal The Lancet Oncology, focus on lung cancer non-small cell, which is the most common form of lung cancer.

Immunologist John Wrangle, of the Cancer Center Hollings at the Medical University of South Carolina say a promising therapeutic can be delivered in the outpatient setting. “People don't talk about ‘curing’ the patient with lung cancer metastatic. But, we use immunotherapy. And at least we have a significant proportion of patients who enjoy the survival is prolonged,” he said.
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Newest Cancer Treatments

He, along with his colleague Mark Rubinstein, also of the Cancer Center Hollings, designing clinical trials that began in 2016. Patients with lung cancer non-small cell metastatic always will be progressed after chemotherapy, so most patients continue to be treated with immunotherapy, a type of therapy that uses the immune system to fight cancer.

One class of drugs-drug imunoterapeutik known as a checkpoint (checkpoint) inhibitors, because they target checkpoints in the regulation of the immune system to allow the body's natural defenses, like white blood cells, to more effectively target cancer.

Rubinstein said checkpoint therapies work by cutting the brake cable on the white blood cells that are inherently capable of killing tumor cells. “Tumor cells often produce factors suppressant that basically change the brakes on white blood cells that kill tumors. What is unique about the therapy that we test, i.e. in addition to cutting the brake cable on the white blood cells, we provide the fuel for them so they can kill cancer cells more effectively,” he said.

Therapy Wrangle and Rubinstein is a combination of the drug examination, nivolumab, with the drug stimulation of immunity a new and powerful, ALT-803. “What is unique about our experiment is that it is two kinds of completely different drugs which are never combined on a man before, and the trials show these drugs are safe, and there is evidence that it can help patients,” said Rubinstein.

An Important component in the Care of

Patients who stop responding to checkpoint therapies can be aided significantly by adding ALT-803. Pre-clinical studies have shown that ALT-803 activates the immune system to mobilize lymphocytes against tumor cells and potentially serves as a critical component in the care of the combination. “Of the 21 patients treated, nine patients had stable disease or responded to immunotherapy single agent before become resistant to this treatment. Nine of these patients, 100 percent had stable disease or responded partially to the treatment used in this study,” said Wrangle.

This new combination, he continued, is a major step forward in the treatment of cancer. “Whereas, for decades the modalities of therapy are surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, the last decade has brought a targeted therapy, and that is immunotherapy. This fundamentally change the balance of forces between the body and Your cancer,” he explained.

Newest Cancer Treatments

A specialist in cancers of the lung, Wrangle said 75 percent of patients with lung cancer are unfortunately diagnosed at a stage that can not be cured. “If 10 years ago You are talking about defining the five-year survival rate for lung cancer patients metastatic non-small cell, someone will laugh in front of You. This would be a joke,” he said.

Wrangle says his collaboration with Rubinstein is a powerful example of what can be achieved by the science team. “Ownership on the basis of the intellectual, and the therapy is real. He was brilliant and just works hard to help understand how we can develop this therapy,” said the Wrangle about the contribution of Rubinstein.

According to him, trials that successfully for the treatment of cancer is very rare. “There are very few people in human history who get the privilege to develop a new therapy for any human disease, especially cancer. Mark and I are now in a club where people have developed the promise of new therapies for cancer. It is a privilege to be able to do that, “he said.

Different from immunotherapy which requires any admission to the hospital, the combination of this new therapy can be given in an outpatient setting. “The plan is to do everything as a therapy outpatient because inpatient therapy just not worth it. My patients feel like suffering from the flu, but they undergo their day, and it's really manageable,” said Wrangle.

Wrangle and Rubinstein surprised and excited over the success that shown in their recent study. Wrangle and Rubinstein hope this will give you more treatment options for patients. “The number of successful trials is very small, but I was surprised, because the success of this part of the a little earlier,” he said.

Rubinstein added that the success of the research is testament to the commitment, hard work, and incredible insight that was given Wrangle to make a difference for his patients. “He has incredible vision to bridge the gap between basic and clinical research,” said Rubinstein.Wrangle says there is still much work to be done before the combination of a new drug can be used outside of clinical trials. “We have a lot of things to figure out how to use this therapy, and we need to treat several hundred patients to get a better understanding about how to improve the synergy of the two classes of drugs. It will take some time,” he said.

The second researcher, who was still in her early forties, said they were motivated by the need to give lung cancer patients a better option. Underline the plans to framing the research publication. “I think this script would be something we have in 20 years from now, when we still work together and find new therapies,”

Seasonal Allergies Treatments and Symptoms

Seasonal allergies treatments - Seasonal allergies are a reaction of allergies that can be experienced by a person due to the change of seasons, also known as allergic rhinitis or hay fever. There are millions of people around the world who have this problem, feel his nose that is watery, congestion, itchy eyes, and other allergic reactions to allergy season. Seasonal allergies this leads to the overreaction of the immune system in response to allergens different are there in the air. Allergens are substances that are responsible for allergic reactions. There are many allergens that can cause this condition, usually encountered by individuals suffering from allergies when the seasons change, such as pollen, mold, dust, or pet dander.

Seasonal Allergies Treatments

Understanding seasonal allergies

Most symptoms of seasonal allergies just about the respiratory system, because the allergens are in the air that is inhaled by the individual. The immune system as the first line defense of human body against attackers that harm the body, be not restrained against allergens.

Seasonal allergies generally appear several times during a year, with patients experiencing symptoms at a certain period in that year. In some patients, seasonal allergies can lead to other conditions, such as ear infections or sinusitis. However, with the increasing age of the patient, his immune system is developing so that the reaction to the allergen is usually not too severe.

Hay fever often affects children, but an allergic reaction is experienced by patients with different ages. Contrary to common supposition, the fever of the hay is not caused by hay, and the reaction of the allergy does not cause fever. Basically, this is inflammation in the nose that cause symptoms such as a runny nose, which can be reduced or lost after the clean air of allergens.

Most people are not aware that they have seasonal allergies, and consider that perceived symptoms are colds and other viruses. If an allergic reaction is quite severe, you should ask for an allergy test to try it on the skin. The procedure involves a diverse range of allergens in a small amount which is put on the skin of the patient to determine, whether the patient has allergic reactions to certain substances.

Causes Of Seasonal Allergies

The cause of seasonal allergies, like other allergies, is the exposure to a particular allergen which makes the patient's immune system becomes chaotic. Pollen is the most common, and come from a variety of sources, such as flowers, trees, weeds, grasses, and plants. Seasonal allergies caused by pollen only appears at certain times of the year.

Pollen allergy is not only appear in the spring. However, in the summer – or when the day was hot, windy, and dry – lot vortex of pollen carried by the wind, and can be inhaled anytime by sufferers of seasonal allergies. When it rains can also cause allergic powder cider, as many of the parts of the plant are carried away by the rain.

Some people are also allergic to pet dander such as cats and dogs. Others experience seasonal allergies when exposed to the mite, which often appears on dry and windy weather. Cockroaches and mushrooms are also a trigger of allergy are common. The allergen is usually found in the room, and attack the patients throughout the year.

Most patients see alergennya in the workplace. Sawdust, the animals used for research in the laboratory, the grain of the cereals, chemical substances and specific vapor, can cause excessive reaction of the immune system.

When someone with seasonal allergies are exposed to allergens, the immune system will release an assortment of biochemical substances that can cause inflammation of the mucus membranes, and the inner layer of the nose. When the membrane swells, it will produce more mucus, so the nose become watery.

Seasonal Allergies Treatments

Research shows that seasonal allergies may be a condition of the derivative. Someone who has parents who have experienced similar symptoms at certain times of the year, it could be having allergic rhinitis. The study also found that patients with mothers who have allergic rhinitis, it usually has the same conditions.

Allergic rhinitis in some people can also be caused by consuming certain foods.

The Main Symptoms Of Seasonal Allergies

Often an error occurs with regard to the symptoms of allergic rhinitis with runny nose, because it is quite similar. While the patient is exposed to allergens, usually will have trouble to smell something, runny nose, sneezing, watery eyes, the nose, eyes, mouth, throat, and skin itch. Some patients also experience a blocked nose, cough, ears clogged, eyes swollen and appear dark area surrounding, sore throat, headache, feel tired and irritable.
Who to see & Types of Treatment Available

Symptoms of seasonal allergies are usually mild and do not require a visit to the emergency room. Family physician or general practitioner can prescribe medication if needed or tips on things that can be done to deal with its symptoms.

Perhaps, the best treatment for seasonal allergies is to make life free of allergens. Certainly, it is difficult to completely avoid the allergens that are in the air, but vigilance can help. Reduce dust and mites in the home, and also the mushrooms, can certainly help. Cleaning the house regularly is a simple step that can reduce the appearance of seasonal allergies.

Install the air filter in the house, replace the furniture and upholstery fabric, blanket, carpet, and other textile materials that can cause allergies, and use the tool to reduce the humidity of the air can help. Stay indoors when the pollen season can also reduce the appearance of seasonal allergies.

Medications can also work to relieve the symptoms. Antihistamine often used, and can be purchased freely. Antihistamine there in the form of liquid, capsules, pills, but can cause drowsiness. The new Formula antihistamine no longer cause drowsiness, and should be consumed while the patient need to do important work. Nasal sprays also help, but can only be obtained with a prescription.

Prediabetes Treatments, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Prediabetes treatments , Prediabetes is a condition when the levels of sugar in the blood already exceeds the limit of normal but have not yet been categorized to the type 2 diabetes. However, people with prediabetes can get type 2 diabetes if not immediately change his life style.
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prediabetes treatments

Symptoms Of Prediabetes

Prediabetes generally do not show specific symptoms. However, in order to be more alert, someone sugar levels in the blood exceed the normal limits should know the symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes, such as:
  • Easily tired.
  • Vision becomes blurred.
  • Often feel thirsty and hungry.
  • More frequent urination.
  • Body weight decreased.
The Causes Of Prediabetes

Prediabetes occurs when the sugar (glucose) begins to accumulate in the bloodstream because the body can't process it well. Glucose comes from the food, and will get into the bloodstream when food is digested. So that glucose can be processed into energy, the body needs the help of the hormone insulin produced by the pancreas.

In patients with prediabetes, the process is impaired. Glucose is supposed to go into body cells to be processed into energy, it accumulates in the blood stream. This happens because the pancreas no more produce insulin, or because insulin resistance, which is when the body cells cannot utilize insulin properly. If this condition persists, the blood sugar levels will continue to rise, so that patients with prediabetes will be stricken with type 2 diabetes.

Risk Factors For Prediabetes

Risk factors in prediabetes the same as risk factors in type 2 diabetes. This is because generally patients with type 2 diabetes previously experienced the condition of prediabetes. These risk factors, among others :
  • Aged over 45 years.
  • Too much consumption of soda, packaged foods, red meat and sugary drinks.
  • Smoking.
  • Physical activity less.
  • Hypertension.
  • High cholesterol.
  • Low birth weight.
  • Obesity.
  • Suffer from diabetes during pregnancy (gestational diabetes).
  • Suffering from PCOS.
The Diagnosis Of Prediabetes

There are three blood tests that are generally performed by a doctor to determine whether a person is experiencing the condition of prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.

1. Test fasting blood sugar (GDP)
The patient will be asked to fast between 8 to 12 hours before undergoing a blood test. The levels of fasting blood sugar in patients judged normal if still below 100 mg/dL, and recently entered the condition of prediabetes if levels are between 100 to 125 mg/dL. The patient will be deemed to have been in the condition of type 2 diabetes if the fasting blood glucose level above 126 mg/dL.

2. Oral glucose tolerance test (2 h PP)
After blood samples were taken for examination of blood sugar test fasting, the patient will be asked to drink liquid sugar, then blood sampling will be done again two hours later.

prediabetes treatments

Blood sugar levels can be said to be normal if the test result shows less than 140 mg/dL, and considered entering the condition of prediabetes if the results of the test ranged from 140 to 199 mg/dL. While the results of the tests show sugar levels 200 mg/dL or more indicates the patient is suffering from type 2 diabetes.

3. Test hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c)
A blood test is done to determine levels of average blood sugar in the last 3 months, by measuring the percentage of blood sugar attached to red blood cells. The higher the blood sugar levels, the higher blood sugar that is inherent in the red blood cells.

The condition of the patient can be said to be normal if the levels of HbA1c is below 5.7 percent. A new patient is considered to enter the condition of prediabetes if levels of HbA1c in the range of 5.7 to 6.4 percent, and has already entered into the diabetes stage 2 if the levels of HbA1c of 6.5% to the top.

Complications Of Prediabetes
If left untreated, prediabetes can develop into type 2 diabetes and other diseases, such as:
  • Stroke.
  • Wounds on the feet at risk of amputation.
  • Infection.
  • Coronary heart disease and peripheral artery disease.
  • Chronic renal failure.
  • Eye damage and blindness.
  • High cholesterol.
  • High blood pressure.
  • Hearing problems.
  • Alzheimer's.
The Treatment Of Prediabetes

Treatment for people with prediabetes is to start to live a healthy lifestyle. In addition can normalize the blood sugar levels, healthy lifestyle can also prevent prediabetes developing into type 2 diabetes.

Patients with prediabetes can start a healthy lifestyle by increasing physical activity. Choose a sport that not too much power, and do it for 30 to 60 minutes several days a week. Exercise will make the body uses glucose as energy thereby preventing the buildup of glucose in the blood, and can lose excess weight. Reduce weight 5 to 10 percent of the total weight can lower the risk of type 2 diabetes in patients with prediabetes.

At the same time, change the food menu of which has been the cause of the high levels of sugar in the blood, to the menu of healthy food. Select the menu of foods that are high in fiber, but low in fat and calories, such as fruits, vegetables and grain. In addition, reduce your consumption of alcohol, limiting the intake of salt no more than 1500 mg per day, and also reduce the sweet food.

Consistent menu of healthy foods and exercise, can make a person with the condition of prediabetes achieve optimal weight and avoid the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, if patients at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes, the doctor will prescribe metformin. The doctor can also prescribe drugs for other concomitant diseases such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol.

Drug Allergy Treatments and Allergic Reactions

Drug allergy treatments, One of the drugs that are not foreign in the ears of the public is an antibiotic. Antibiotics are drugs that are used to kill bacteria that cause infection. Usually people who are required to take the medicine antibiotics are those who are suffering from throat infections, ear infections, urinary tract infections, or sinus infections. Taking antibiotics useful for infection diidapnya can be cured. Antibiotic drug consists of a wide variety of types with usability and a different way of working. Therefore before taking any antibiotic medication, you must make sure that if you do not have a history of drug allergy to antibiotics.
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Drug Allergy Treatments

Signs Of Drug Allergy Antibiotics
A person can suffer from allergic antibiotic drugs after he was taking drugs certain antibiotics by eliciting a variety of symptoms that vary. Usually the symptoms due to drug allergy antibiotics are divided into two namely the symptoms of mild and serious symptoms. For mild symptoms that can be felt is the skin becomes red, itchy, dry, and swollen.

While allergic reactions of antibiotic drugs is more serious, can cause one's skin to become blistered, flaking, impaired vision, and swelling are more severe on certain parts of the body, such as eyelids, lips, accompanied by itching. In addition, the serious consequences of drug allergy antibiotics which cause anaphylactic reactions in people with which is characterized by shortness of breath, tingling, increased heartbeat, to fall unconscious.

Overcoming Allergy Medication Antibiotics
One of the usual ways done by doctors to find out allergy antibiotic which either person is to see the medicines what you are consumption and examine the history of complaints that occurred. When you have known the cause of the allergy medications that you natural, step you can take is to stop the administration of antibiotics such and replace it with the type of other antibiotics that do not trigger the onset of allergic reactions. The following 3 drugs are usually given by doctors to deal with allergic reactions :

1. Antihistamines
The drug is administered aims to reduce or stop itching, rash, and sneezing caused by allergies antibiotic drugs. One of the side effects of administration of antihistamine drugs, namely the emergence of sleepiness and difficult concentration. Therefore when you're driving do not consume this drug. In addition side effects the consumption of other antihistamines namely nausea and vomiting, mouth becomes dry, restless, difficult urination, and blurred vision.

Drug Allergy Treatments

2. Epinephrine
To remedy this one are usually useful to cope with allergies to antibiotics that causes a person to experience an anaphylactic reaction. Epinephrine is given to help people with drug allergies breathing and increase blood pressure. Injection of Epinephrine is usually given in the muscles, such as on the outer side of the thigh. Please note when you want to give Epinephrine to people who have a history of heart disease, high blood pressure, asthma, Parkinson's disease, depression, thyroid gland or adrenal, and uncontrolled diabetes.

3. Corticosteroids
While for administration of corticosteroids are useful to treat inflammation due to allergic reactions more serious. Side effects that can be generated such as increased appetite, mood changes, and difficulty sleeping. However, if you consume this drug with a low dose and a short period of time according to the dosage recommended by your doctor, the third such side effects will not occur.

If you are taking antibiotics and in use to appear signs of drug allergy antibiotics as mentioned above, please ask your doctor to immediately be given handling. When necessary, if you're given antibiotics by the doctor, you should inform a history of allergies you have ever had at the doctor to avoid allergic reactions reappear.

Diagnosis Treatments For Skin Cancer

Treatments for skin cancer , Skin cancer is the abnormalities in the skin cells caused by mutations in the DNA of cells, which make cell growth is quick, the age of the cell is long and the cell loses its essence. Skin cancer generally occurs on the skin that is often exposed to sunlight, however, this condition can also occur on the skin that is not exposed to direct sunlight.
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Treatments For Skin Cancer

Based on the type of cells that are attacked, skin cancer is divided into three types, namely:
  1. Melanoma. This is a skin cancer that occurs on parts of the melanocytes or the pigment-producing cells of the skin. Skin cancer melanoma is a skin cancer that is rare, but dangerous.
  2. Skin cancer non-melanoma. This is a skin cancer that occurs in the tissues of the skin other than melanocytes. Skin cancer non-melanoma are distinguished into two types as follows:
  • Basal Cell carcinoma (Basal Cell Carcinoma, BCC), which is skin cancer that occurs in the lower part of the epidermis. Basal cell cancer is a type of cancer non-melanoma most commonly occurs in humans.
  • Squamous Cell carcinoma (Squamous Cell Carcinoma, SCC), which is skin cancer that occurs in the upper part of the epidermis. Squamous cell cancer is quite common, but the frequency is not as much as basal cell cancer.
Symptoms Of Skin Cancer
Skin cancer generally occurs in areas often exposed to sunlight such as the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms, and limbs. However, in some cases, skin cancer can also occur in areas that are rarely exposed to the sun such as on the palms of the hands and feet, the lower part of the fingers, even in the genital area. Skin cancer can happen to anyone, including the people who have dark skin color. Symptoms of skin cancer are different for each type. The general idea is as follows :

1. Basal Cell carcinoma (BCC). BCC generally occurs in areas often exposed to sunlight such as the neck or face. Symptoms of basal cell cancer include:
  • Lumps soft and shiny on the skin.
  • Lesions of the flat-shaped skin-colored dark brown or reddish brown like meat.

2. Squamous Cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC also generally occurs in areas of skin exposed to the sun. However in dark-skinned people, squamous cell cancer often occurs on the skin parts of the body rarely exposed to sunlight. Symptoms of SCC in general are as follows.
  •  Bump red hard on the skin.
  • Lesions on the skin that is flat and scaly hard as the crust.
3. Melanoma. Melanoma can grow on the skin anywhere, either in normal skin or in moles that already exist are turned into malignant. In males, the cancer melanoma usually appear on the face and body. While in women, melanoma appears more frequently in the lower limbs. Well on men and women, melanoma can appear on parts of skin not exposed to sunlight. Melanoma can affect anyone regardless of the color of his skin. In dark-skinned people, melanoma commonly occurs on the palms of the hands or feet and the lower part of the fingers or toes. The symptoms of melanoma that commonly occur are as follows:
  • Lumps colored brown with black spots on the lump.
  • Moles that undergo changes in color and size or eject blood.
  • The appearance of small lesions on the skin with the edge of the irregular, or the lesions are red, white, blue, and blackish blue.
  • The appearance of lesions dark-colored on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, the tips of the fingers or toes.
  • The appearance of lesions dark-colored on the mucous membranes inside the mouth, nose, vagina, or anus.
Here is the list of ABCDE of the characteristics of melanoma in order to distinguish it with ordinary moles.
  • Asymmetrical. Shape melanomas are generally asymmetrical when compared with the ordinary moles.
  • Border (periphery). The outskirts of melanoma generally squiggly, not round like normal moles.
  • Color (color). The color of melanoma is a combination of two colors or more.
  • The Diameter of a melanoma is generally more than 6 mm.
  • Enlargement (magnification). Melanoma will be enlarged from time to time.
Not all abnormalities or protrusions on the skin caused by cancer, but often also cancer of the skin appears in the form of mild defects on the skin, therefore the diagnosis of a doctor is very important in determining the cause and type of abnormalities in the.

Treatments For Skin Cancer

The Cause Of Skin Cancer
Generally skin cancer caused by exposure to ultraviolet light causing DNA damage in the skin tissue. The main source of ultraviolet rays is sunlight consists of three types, namely :
  • Ultraviolet A (UVA)
  • Ultraviolet B (UVB)
  • Ultraviolet C (UVC)
Of the three types of ultraviolet rays, the most harmful to the skin is a beam of UVC. But the rays of the UVC can be absorbed by the atmosphere before reaching the ground. UVA and UVB can damage skin cells, especially the pale, and could potentially lead to skin cancer.

Sources of artificial UV rays such as UV light and tanning beds can also cause skin cancer.

Some of the factors that can increase a person's risk of getting skin cancer is :
  • Have white skin. Every person, regardless of the color of his skin, can suffer from skin cancer. However, white has protection against UV rays which is weak compared to darker skin. Darker skin have the amount of melanin is much that has protection against UV rays more powerful. In addition, easy to form spots on the skin indicates the skin is more susceptible to skin cancer.
  • Frequent exposure to the sun. People who are often exposed to sunlight are more at risk of developing skin cancer compared to those who rarely exposed to sunlight.
  • Moles. People who have many moles or have moles that are abnormal (larger than usual) is at risk of developing skin cancer compared with people who have little moles.
  • Age. People with age are more susceptible to skin cancer compared to children or teens.
  • Skin who never sunburn (sunburn). Skin blackened and blistered by the rays of the sun make the skin more at risk of developing skin cancer, especially if pelepuhan the skin occurs at the time children or adolescents.
  • Actinic keratosis. In people with bright skin tone, exposure to sunlight easy to cause the formation of patches in the form of thickening of the skin that are scaly on the face, hands, and head. This condition is pre-cancerous, and very potentially turn into skin cancer.
  • History of cancer of the skin. If someone never experienced cancer of the skin and cured, there is a possibility that the same conditions will re-appear.
  • A history of skin cancer in family members. A person at high risk of developing skin cancer if you have siblings or parents who had suffered from cancer of the skin.
  • The weakening of the immune system. People with a weak immune system have a high risk of skin cancer. As are people with HIV/AIDS, people who take immunosuppressant drugs, and recipients of organ transplants.
  • Radiation therapy. People with eczema or acne are given radiation therapy have a high risk of skin cancer, especially basal cell cancer.
  • Exposure to certain chemicals. Some chemicals are carcinogenic, such as arsenic, can increase the risk of developing skin cancer.
Drugs For Melanoma

1. Chemotherapy
Handling melanoma that has spread to other parts of the body is with the use of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is generally done to reduce the pain of the symptoms caused by melanoma in advanced stages. Chemotherapy using the usage of anti-cancer drugs or sitotoksin to kill the cancer.

Several types of drugs can be used to treat melanoma. Specialist doctor will discuss medications with You. There are different types of chemotherapy drugs, and sometimes can be combined. The most commonly used to treat melanoma are dacarbazine and temozolomide.

Patients who undergo chemotherapy do not need to stay in hospital. Chemotherapy is given once in three or four weeks. The amount of time given to aim so Your body has time to recover. Dacarbazine is given through a drip and temozolomide is given in the form of tablets.

Chemotherapy has some side effects that are caused by the influence of the drug against the resistance of the body. Most side effects can be prevented or controlled with medicines prescribed by Your doctor. The side effects of chemotherapy in which infections, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and thrush.

2. Immunotherapy
The application of immunotherapy drugs already derived from the elements that exist in the blood naturally. This treatment aims to encourage the immune system to fight melanoma. Two drugs are commonly used for melanoma is interferon-alfa and interleukin-2. The second drug is administered through injections into the veins, under the skin, or into a blob of melanoma. Side effects that often occur from the use of immunotherapy resemble the symptoms of flu, e.g. fever, joint pain, and fatigue.

3. Monoclonal antibodies
The human body produces antibodies that function to control infections. In addition to the in the body, there are also antibodies that can be produced in a laboratory, which was given the name of the monoclonal antibody.

The patient will be given artificial antibody in a dose specific. Then these antibodies will recognize tumor cells and destroy it.

Mastitis Treatments : Prevention Of Breast Infection

Mastitis treatments - Breast infection or mastitis is an infection of the breast tissue that most commonly strikes women breastfeeding in first 12 weeks after childbirth. In a minority of cases, masitis can also be experienced by women who do not breastfeed. When experiencing mastitis, the breasts will be swollen, reddish colored, and palpable warm. This swelling causes pain especially when exposed to the touch. Usually, mastitis is only attacking one side of the breast, although not close the possibility of a second breast exposed.

Mastitis Treatments Breast Infection

Mastitis causes the mother or the sufferer is having trouble parenting his son so that the feeding activities sometimes become stunted or stalled. Despite this, breastfeeding should still be done because it is good for patients and baby. Breastfeeding also can still be performed even if patients are taking antibiotics for treatment of mastitis.
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Causes Of Breast Infection
In most cases, a breast infection that occurs in lactating women is caused by the presence of residual water of the mother's milk (breast MILK) in the breast. The buildup of the rest of the MILK will clog the milk ducts so your breasts will swell.

Experts suspect that the pile of breast MILK over time will produce a pressure strong enough in the breast, so breast MILK will seep into the tissues around the breast. The protein content in the breast MILK this will be misinterpreted by the body as foreign, and the immune system will work to fight it, so it came to pass a reaction of inflammation.

The blockage in the breast MILK ducts can be triggered by the breastfeeding technique is less precise, disorders on the baby so it can't suck milk properly, dispensing MILK irregularly, using only one breast for breastfeeding, or the presence of trauma that damage the tissues of the expenditure of water of milk.

Other causes are bacteria from the surface of the skin or the baby's mouth. Bacteria can enter the milk ducts through a crack in the nipple or the opening of the milk ducts. Bacteria can also develop from milk are not issued until exhausted, but the content of the antibacterial owned water mother's milk makes the baby protected from infections.

In general, mastitis will not affect the condition of the baby. However, babies are in special care units are not allowed to directly drink the MILK that comes from the breast that is infected because it has a salt content that tend to be high.

In women who do not breastfeed, mastitis is usually caused by the nipples have cracks, pierced, or wound, and called mastitis periduktal. The condition of the nipple this can cause the bacteria easily enter into the breast MILK and cause infection.

There are several other risk factors that can increase the likelihood of contracting breast infections or mastitis, in which :
  • The nutrients that bad.
  • Never experienced mastitis before that occurred in the period of breastfeeding.
  • Too tired or stress
  • Wearing a bra that is too tight or put excessive pressure on the chest, for example with the use of safety belt or carry heavy bags.
  • Using only one position when breastfeeding so that the MILK does not come out all of the breast.
  • The period of breastfeeding are rare or missing.
  •  Damage to the breast MILK ducts or glands in the breast.
Symptoms Of Breast Infections
Breast infections or mastitis characterized by the presence of swelling a palpable warm and reddish on the breast, and usually cause pain and a burning sensation especially when breastfeeding. Usually, these symptoms are only experienced on one side of the breast.

Mastitis Treatments Breast Infection

In addition, mastitis often make the sufferer feel out of energy, or fatigue, and symptoms such as high fever and chills. In other cases, symptoms can be similar to flu symptoms for a few hours before the sufferer is aware there are areas in the breast which is rather swell. Please see your doctor to confirm the diagnosis and get treatment.

Diagnosis Of Infection Of The Breast
Diagnosis of infection of the breast is usually given by a gynecologist, but can be also obtained by performing checks on the general practitioner only. Patients may be referred to a lactation consultant if it turns out that mastitis is caused by interruption of breastfeeding.

The doctor will perform a physical examination based on symptoms presented patients to confirm the diagnosis of mastitis, for example a high fever followed by pain in the breast or swelling. Examination mammography and a biopsy may be done to get rid of suspected breast cancer who have the symptoms are almost the same, i.e., swollen reddish colored.

The doctor will also check if there is an abscess (pus) in the breast area, which is experiencing swelling if it turns out that the condition has lasted long enough. An abscess may develop if a breast infection is not treated promptly or infection suffered severe enough. Examination of breast MILK may be done to determine the antibiotic suitable for the patient.

Treatment Of Breast Infections
The drug antibiotics will usually be given to treat this condition and patients will feel better after two days. However, the antibiotic should should stay drunk until the treatment period is over so this condition does not reoccur. Pain medication can also be given, such as ibuprofen and acetaminophen.

If not treated immediately, the swelling may develop into pus until thickened and required surgery to remove it from the breast. Your doctor may perform additional tests if the patient's condition did not improve even though has attained the above treatment.

If mastitis is caused by a blockage of the flow of milk that comes from the breastfeeding technique is less good, then the doctor can recommend a lactation consultant to help sufferers with this condition. Remember always to breastfeed until the supply of milk in the breast out and the baby to suckle properly.

Also make sure You get adequate rest periods, increase fluid intake to help the body fight infection, and keep nursing Your child as often as possible and as long as the baby is hungry. The more often You breastfeed, then the risk of channel congestion will also be reduced. Below this is another step that can be done :
  • Rest in bed with the baby will allow the creation of a breastfeeding more often.
  • Try different types of nursing positions, don't just do one position only.
  • Use a bra that not only sustains the breast but also comfortable to wear. Avoid a bra that uses wire as a crutch or a bra that is too small.
  • Avoid charging milk prolonged (before feeding back), because it could trigger swelling.
  • Put a warm, damp compress on the breast, or bathe with warm water before breastfeeding or pumping breast MILK in order not to experience difficulty emptying the breast MILK from the breast.
  • If it is too difficult to breastfeed, or if Your baby does not want to breastfeed from the breast that is infected, then You could try pumping or squeezing of the breast to the rest of the MILK can come out.
Prevention Of Breast Infection
Breast infections can be prevented by applying the way of a good breastfeeding since the beginning, including by consulting with a lactation specialist if necessary. A lactation specialist can provide useful advice about the techniques of lactation that is good and right. Some of the picketing of another that can be done to reduce the risk of mastitis, are:
  • Always change the position (change of the breast) every feeding.
  • Emptying the breast fully when the are breastfeeding. If the baby has stopped feeding and the breast is not completely empty, use a pump breast MILK until the breast back empty.
  • Let Your baby empty the breast MILK one breast before switching to the breast next to it.
  • Make sure the position of the baby has been fitting, comfortable, and true when you're breastfeeding.

Cellulitis Treatments, Prevention and Complications

Cellulitis treatments - Cellulitis is a bacterial infection of the skin tissue can cause skin appears reddish, swollen, feels mushy, and hurts when pressed. This condition often attacks the skin of the lower limbs, but do not close the possibility can attack other parts of the body also. Anyone can experience cellulitis, including children and the elderly.

Cellulitis Treatments

Cellulitis is a condition that can be life-threatening if not dealt with immediately given the infection can spread through the lymph nodes and blood vessels to invade the tissues under the skin. However, cellulitis is not a contagious skin disease due to this infection attacks the tissues of skin (subcutaneous tissue or dermis) and the top skin (epidermis) that is not in direct contact with the outside world.
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The Cause Of Cellulitis

Most cases of cellulitis are caused by Streptococcus bacteria and Staphylococcus which enters from the wound on the skin, such as surgery wounds, cuts, and insect bites, or on the state of the skin irritation and skin swelling. Cellulitis can also develop in the various diseases of the skin, such as tinea pedis, eczema, or psoriasis, as well as due to radiotherapy.

In addition to the two main bacteria, there are also some other bacteria that can cause cellulitis and live in the environment, such as :
  • Hemophilus influenzae. These bacteria generally attack a 6 year old boy in the face, arms, and upper body.
  • Pasteurella multocida. This bacteria can be transmitted through a bite or scratch of a dog or cat, with an incubation time of 24 hours.
  • Aeromonas hydrophillia and Vibrio vulnificus. Both of these bacteria can be found in fresh water and sea water.
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These bacteria arise in puncture wounds.
To date, not yet known for sure the main trigger of a person can be exposed to cellulitis. However, there are some risk factors that need to be considered, such as :
  • Obesity.
  • Poor blood flow in the arms, hands, legs or feet.
  • The immune system is low, for example due to suffering from HIV/AIDS, taking medications immunosuppressant (suppressor of the immune system), or are undergoing chemotherapy.
  • Diabetes.
  • Never experienced cellulitis before.
  • Using the medicine syringe.
  • Experience lymphedema.
The Symptoms Of Cellulitis

Some of the symptoms of cellulitis commonly experienced by sufferers include :
  • Skin redness that could potentially spread.
  • Swelling.
  • Pain.
  • Fever.
  • Red spots appear.
  • The skin blistered.
  • Skin purulent or watery (appears yellow liquid or clear)
The Diagnosis Of Cellulitis

Cellulitis is not easy to diagnose because it has symptoms similar to the symptoms of inflammation of the skin in general. To be sure, the doctor will perform a physical examination and also asking the patient's medical history as well as factors that trigger symptoms appear.

Cellulitis Treatments

To corroborate the results of the diagnosis, some of the following tests will also be performed :
  • A blood test. To see if there's an infection, namely from the number of white blood cells.
  • The test culture. In this test, a sample of fluid from the wound will be taken and checked whether there are bacteria.
  •  An X-Ray. To see the presence of foci of infection under the skin, including the bones.
Treatment Of Cellulitis

In general, the treatment of cellulitis will be adjusted with the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's condition overall. Oral antibiotics are usually be the first treatment option for patients with cellulitis, with long-time use for 7-14 days.

If the patient's condition does not improve after 10 days or symptoms actually worsened, the doctor will advise the patient to undergo treatment in a hospital so that antibiotics and other drugs can be administered through injections. It is also commonly recommended for patients who have immune system weak, fever, and hypertension.

In rare cases, the doctor will recommend surgery if found pus or abscess. This is done to drain the pus or abscess of the tissues and cut the dead tissue to facilitate the healing process.

In the recovery period, some treatment can be done at home according to doctor's instructions, among other things :
  • Taking the drug pedera pain, such as paracetamol or ibuprofen.
  • Elevate the body part that is infected with the use of a soft base as a crutch.
  • Move the limbs that get infected regularly so as not to be
  • Avoid the use of compression stockings for a while if You are a sufferer of lymphedema, until the cellulitis healed.
  • Consuming enough water.
Complications Of Cellulitis

Cellulitis that is not treated can spread to other parts of the body and can strike the bottom of the skin, such as lymph nodes, blood vessels, as well as the deepest layers. This can lead to complications such as :
  • A blood infection.
  • Sepsis.
  • Infection of the bone.
  • Lymphadenitis.
  • Gangrene.
  • The spread of the infection into the deepest layers or fascial lining (necrotizing fasciitis). This is a medical emergency.
Prevention Of Cellulitis

Cellulitis can be prevented by doing the following things:
  • Always keep the cleanliness of the skin and the wound using soap and water.
  • Close the wound with a plaster to avoid infection.
  • Always make sure that Your wound has no signs of infection.
  • Using the footwear while in the outside the house.
  • Use a moisturizer daily to avoid dry skin or chapped.
  • Cut the nails of feet and hands with be careful to avoid the wound.
  • Keep your weight to avoid obesity.