Diagnosis Treatments For Skin Cancer

Treatments for skin cancer , Skin cancer is the abnormalities in the skin cells caused by mutations in the DNA of cells, which make cell growth is quick, the age of the cell is long and the cell loses its essence. Skin cancer generally occurs on the skin that is often exposed to sunlight, however, this condition can also occur on the skin that is not exposed to direct sunlight.
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Based on the type of cells that are attacked, skin cancer is divided into three types, namely:
  1. Melanoma. This is a skin cancer that occurs on parts of the melanocytes or the pigment-producing cells of the skin. Skin cancer melanoma is a skin cancer that is rare, but dangerous.

  2. Skin cancer non-melanoma. This is a skin cancer that occurs in the tissues of the skin other than melanocytes. Skin cancer non-melanoma are distinguished into two types as follows:
  • Basal Cell carcinoma (Basal Cell Carcinoma, BCC), which is skin cancer that occurs in the lower part of the epidermis. Basal cell cancer is a type of cancer non-melanoma most commonly occurs in humans.

  • Squamous Cell carcinoma (Squamous Cell Carcinoma, SCC), which is skin cancer that occurs in the upper part of the epidermis. Squamous cell cancer is quite common, but the frequency is not as much as basal cell cancer.

Treatments For Skin Cancer

Symptoms Of Skin Cancer
Skin cancer generally occurs in areas often exposed to sunlight such as the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms, and limbs. However, in some cases, skin cancer can also occur in areas that are rarely exposed to the sun such as on the palms of the hands and feet, the lower part of the fingers, even in the genital area. Skin cancer can happen to anyone, including the people who have dark skin color.

Symptoms of skin cancer are different for each type. The general idea is as follows :

1. Basal Cell carcinoma (BCC). BCC generally occurs in areas often exposed to sunlight such as the neck or face. Symptoms of basal cell cancer include:
  • Lumps soft and shiny on the skin.
  • Lesions of the flat-shaped skin-colored dark brown or reddish brown like meat.
2. Squamous Cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC also generally occurs in areas of skin exposed to the sun. However in dark-skinned people, squamous cell cancer often occurs on the skin parts of the body rarely exposed to sunlight. Symptoms of SCC in general are as follows.
  •  Bump red hard on the skin.
  • Lesions on the skin that is flat and scaly hard as the crust.
3. Melanoma. Melanoma can grow on the skin anywhere, either in normal skin or in moles that already exist are turned into malignant. In males, the cancer melanoma usually appear on the face and body. While in women, melanoma appears more frequently in the lower limbs. Well on men and women, melanoma can appear on parts of skin not exposed to sunlight.

Melanoma can affect anyone regardless of the color of his skin. In dark-skinned people, melanoma commonly occurs on the palms of the hands or feet and the lower part of the fingers or toes. The symptoms of melanoma that commonly occur are as follows:
  • Lumps colored brown with black spots on the lump.
  • Moles that undergo changes in color and size or eject blood.
  • The appearance of small lesions on the skin with the edge of the irregular, or the lesions are red, white, blue, and blackish blue.
  • The appearance of lesions dark-colored on the palms of the hands, soles of the feet, the tips of the fingers or toes.
  • The appearance of lesions dark-colored on the mucous membranes inside the mouth, nose, vagina, or anus.
Here is the list of ABCDE of the characteristics of melanoma in order to distinguish it with ordinary moles.
  • Asymmetrical. Shape melanomas are generally asymmetrical when compared with the ordinary moles.
  • Border (periphery). The outskirts of melanoma generally squiggly, not round like normal moles.
  • Color (color). The color of melanoma is a combination of two colors or more.
  • The Diameter of a melanoma is generally more than 6 mm.
  • Enlargement (magnification). Melanoma will be enlarged from time to time.
Not all abnormalities or protrusions on the skin caused by cancer, but often also cancer of the skin appears in the form of mild defects on the skin, therefore the diagnosis of a doctor is very important in determining the cause and type of abnormalities in the.

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Treatments For Skin Cancer

The Cause Of Skin Cancer
Generally skin cancer caused by exposure to ultraviolet light causing DNA damage in the skin tissue. The main source of ultraviolet rays is sunlight consists of three types, namely :
  • Ultraviolet A (UVA)
  • Ultraviolet B (UVB)
  • Ultraviolet C (UVC)
Of the three types of ultraviolet rays, the most harmful to the skin is a beam of UVC. But the rays of the UVC can be absorbed by the atmosphere before reaching the ground. UVA and UVB can damage skin cells, especially the pale, and could potentially lead to skin cancer.

Sources of artificial UV rays such as UV light and tanning beds can also cause skin cancer.

Some of the factors that can increase a person's risk of getting skin cancer is :
  • Have white skin. Every person, regardless of the color of his skin, can suffer from skin cancer. However, white has protection against UV rays which is weak compared to darker skin. Darker skin have the amount of melanin is much that has protection against UV rays more powerful. In addition, easy to form spots on the skin indicates the skin is more susceptible to skin cancer.

  • Frequent exposure to the sun. People who are often exposed to sunlight are more at risk of developing skin cancer compared to those who rarely exposed to sunlight.

  • Moles. People who have many moles or have moles that are abnormal (larger than usual) is at risk of developing skin cancer compared with people who have little moles.

  • Age. People with age are more susceptible to skin cancer compared to children or teens.

  • Skin who never sunburn (sunburn). Skin blackened and blistered by the rays of the sun make the skin more at risk of developing skin cancer, especially if pelepuhan the skin occurs at the time children or adolescents.

  • Actinic keratosis. In people with bright skin tone, exposure to sunlight easy to cause the formation of patches in the form of thickening of the skin that are scaly on the face, hands, and head. This condition is pre-cancerous, and very potentially turn into skin cancer.

  • History of cancer of the skin. If someone never experienced cancer of the skin and cured, there is a possibility that the same conditions will re-appear.

  • A history of skin cancer in family members. A person at high risk of developing skin cancer if you have siblings or parents who had suffered from cancer of the skin.

  • The weakening of the immune system. People with a weak immune system have a high risk of skin cancer. As are people with HIV/AIDS, people who take immunosuppressant drugs, and recipients of organ transplants.

  • Radiation therapy. People with eczema or acne are given radiation therapy have a high risk of skin cancer, especially basal cell cancer.

  • Exposure to certain chemicals. Some chemicals are carcinogenic, such as arsenic, can increase the risk of developing skin cancer.
Drugs For Melanoma

1. Chemotherapy
Handling melanoma that has spread to other parts of the body is with the use of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is generally done to reduce the pain of the symptoms caused by melanoma in advanced stages. Chemotherapy using the usage of anti-cancer drugs or sitotoksin to kill the cancer.

Several types of drugs can be used to treat melanoma. Specialist doctor will discuss medications with You. There are different types of chemotherapy drugs, and sometimes can be combined. The most commonly used to treat melanoma are dacarbazine and temozolomide.

Patients who undergo chemotherapy do not need to stay in hospital. Chemotherapy is given once in three or four weeks. The amount of time given to aim so Your body has time to recover. Dacarbazine is given through a drip and temozolomide is given in the form of tablets.

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Chemotherapy has some side effects that are caused by the influence of the drug against the resistance of the body. Most side effects can be prevented or controlled with medicines prescribed by Your doctor. The side effects of chemotherapy in which infections, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and thrush.

2. Immunotherapy
The application of immunotherapy drugs already derived from the elements that exist in the blood naturally. This treatment aims to encourage the immune system to fight melanoma. Two drugs are commonly used for melanoma is interferon-alfa and interleukin-2. The second drug is administered through injections into the veins, under the skin, or into a blob of melanoma. Side effects that often occur from the use of immunotherapy resemble the symptoms of flu, e.g. fever, joint pain, and fatigue.

3. Monoclonal antibodies
The human body produces antibodies that function to control infections. In addition to the in the body, there are also antibodies that can be produced in a laboratory, which was given the name of the monoclonal antibody.

The patient will be given artificial antibody in a dose specific. Then these antibodies will recognize tumor cells and destroy it.

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