Here Are Causes, Treatment And Symptoms Of Mono


Causes, treatment and symptoms of mono, Mononucleosis or glandular fever or MONO disease, is an infection that occurs due to spread of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the body through saliva. Disease that often attacks the young will remain in the body for approximately two months before the end cause symptoms.

The main spread of this virus is through the saliva, so that some activities such as kissing, sharing toothbrushes, sharing eating utensils or drinking with other people without being washed first, as well as coughing or sneezing can increase the risk of contracting this disease. However, disease transmission is not as easy as other infections (e.g. colds).

When the saliva of an infected virus EBV get into the human body, the virus in the saliva it will begin to infect the cells on the surface of the walls of the throat. The body will release white blood cells, i.e., cells B lymphocytes, to fight off the infection. B cells that contain this virus will be captured by a system of lymph nodes that are scattered in various parts of the body. This is how virus EBV spread in the human body.

Causes, Treatment And Symptoms Of Mono

The large number of lymphocytes-B produced by the body to fight the virus EBV is indicated by the increased levels of lymphocytes at the time of examination of the blood. In addition, the release of lymphocytes-B by the body will be followed by the expenditure of a protein-protein of inflammation called cytokines. Cytokines that causes the sufferer to feel a fever.

After the process of the infection passes, the body will form an immune system permanently, so it is likely to experience symptoms of deuteronomy is very small. However, in some people, the virus will remain in the saliva in an inactive form. This Virus can be transmitted to other people, or maybe it can be re-activated in certain conditions.

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Young adults aged 15-30 years are most often affected by this disease because they make direct contact with a lot of people constantly, and sexual activity was recorded highest in this age group. In addition, health workers, nurses, as well as people taking the drug debilitating endurance of the body is also more prone to suffer mononuklesis compared with normal people.

Symptoms Of Mononucleosis

Disease mononucleosis or called by most people as a “disease of the kiss” have symptoms that are not much different from viral infections other ordinary (e.g. the flu), so it is sometimes difficult to recognize. Some of the symptoms most often encountered are :



  • Fever
  • Strep throat is more painful than inflammation of the never experienced before
  • Swelling of the glands, most often in the neck but also in other parts of the body such as in the armpits
  • Tired easily
Some other symptoms that may be encountered, among others:
  • A sense of not feeling well
  • Muscle pain or weakness
  • Chills
  • Swelling of the spleen or liver
  • Decreased appetite
  • Swelling of the tonsils and adenoids (tissues in the nose the back)
  • The pain to swelling on the eyes
  • The appearance of spots dark red (sometimes purple) on the palate.
Diagnosis Of Mononucleosis

The doctor will diagnose the possibility of mononucleosis through a physical examination to see signs and symptoms, for example swelling in the tonsils, lymph nodes, spleen or even liver. In addition, the doctor will probably suggest to do the laboratory examination such as the tests of counting of white blood cells and antibody tests.

Test the counting of white blood cells is done to look for elevated levels of lymphocytes in the body (lymphocytosis). The results of these tests often become the reference added to support the diagnosis of mononucleosis, but not the one used to establish the diagnosis.

Causes, Treatment And Symptoms Of Mono

Laboratory tests the next is a test monospot. This test is done to check the levels of antibodies against EBV in the body. This test is fairly quick, where the results can be directly viewed on that day as well. However, this test can not be done at one week of onset of infection, because the antibodies still haven't formed perfectly.

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Treatment Of Mononucleosis

Up to now, still no treatment or cure for mononucleosis. Mononucleosis can be cured by itself in a few weeks time, but some of the things below can be done to relieve the symptoms of :
  • Fluid. Consume lots of water (including fresh fruit juice) can help relieve fever, overcome sore throat, and prevent dehydration. In addition, You can also gargle using salt water several times a day.
  •  Anti-pain medication. Fever or pain and aches can be reduced by taking anti-pain medication that is safe (ibuprofen or paracetamol) to relieve fever and pain.
  • Drug anti-inflammatory. Anti-inflammatory corticosteroids may be required if there is swelling of the tonsils, severe anemia, there is a problem in the heart, or an interruption in the brain or nerves. Talk to your doctor first before taking this drug.
  • Break. Expand rest and avoid physical activity that is too heavy or that require hard physical contact such as sports, because at the moment suffering from mononucleosis, can occur swelling of the spleen. Impact hard enough can cause the spleen is ruptured.
It is recommended to see a doctor if the symptoms of the disease mononucleosis does not go away within two weeks after You apply the above ways.

Hospitalization may be needed for patients with mononucleosis with certain conditions, such as shortness of breath, difficulty swallowing food or liquid, or experiencing extreme abdominal pain.

Complications Of Mononucleosis



Mononucleosis is not a serious disease, but does not close the possibility of complications occurring, although it is rare. Some of them are :
  • Fatigue prolonged: Ten percent of patients with mononucleosis can feel the fatigue for 6 months or more. Up to now the cause of this complication is unknown.

  • Reduced blood cells in the body: blood cells decreased blood such as red blood cells (anemia) can cause shortness of breath and fatigue, white blood cells (neutropenia) which makes sufferers more susceptible to secondary infections, and platelets which causes a person more prone to bleeding occurs.

  • Damage to the spleen: About half of patients with mononucleosis experience swelling of the spleen. Hard impact due to strenuous activity or exercise will make a meal that swelling is to be broken. This condition is life threatening because bleeding will occur internally in the stomach.

  • Disorders of Innervation: the complications of innervation that may occur between other syndrome Guillain-Barre syndrome (inflammation of the nervous system), bell's palsy (weakness/paralysis of half side of the facial muscles), inflammation of the lining of the brain due to a virus, and encephalitis (inflammation of the brain).

  • Inflammation of the liver: Although rare, hepatitis and jaundice can attack patients with mononucleosis.
Prevention Of Mononucleosis

Though mononucleosis is difficult to be prevented, there are several ways that we can do to reduce the risk of contracting this disease. Some of which is to avoid kissing with the patients, protect themselves from exposure to saliva issued to other people through sneezing or coughing, and not sharing toothbrushes and not sharing eating utensils or drinking with other people. In addition, do not hesitate to see a doctor if they experience symptoms that interfere so that this disease can be quickly addressed

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